Important Words to Know
Amino Acid – The minerals that make up protein.
Anthocyanins – Anthocyanins are antioxidants in the flavonoids group and are responsible for the vibrant colors in fruits (blueberries, cherries, pomegranates). These are some of the most potent antioxidants found in nature.
Antioxidant – A dietary substance including nutrients that slow or inhibit the oxidation of oxygen molecules, therefore diminishing the effects of oxidative stress (freed radicals). They also can boost immune system function.
Biological Value Index (BVI) - A scale of measurement used to determine what percentage of a given nutrient source is utilized by the body.
Carbohydrate – A nutrient in food that provides a major source of energy.
Electrolytes – Electrolytes contain the minerals: sodium, magnesium, and potassium that are used to transport nutrients. These minerals affect and regulate hydration of the body.
Flavonoids - The flavonoids (also known as bioflavonoids, polyphenols or vitamin P), are a group of the phytonutrients (nutrients from plants), and are responsible for the colors of fruits (e.g. the red or blue of grape and berry skins) and vegetables. They are highly potent antioxidants.
Freed Radicals - Molecules that have lost an electron due to oxidation, caused through exercise. These molecules regain the electron by taking them from muscle cell membranes, thereby damaging the muscle, resulting in inflammation.
Glycogen – The primary fuel source for muscles that is stored in the muscles and liver. It is the product of carbohydrate breakdown.
Glucose – The primary fuel source for exercise that is transported through the bloodstream. It is the product of carbohydrate breakdown.
Hypertonic - Hypertonic drinks force your body to shift fluids around in your body to make the fluids isotonic before actual digestion. This leads to slower digestion rates and less effectiveness.
Isotonic - Isotonic drinks have the same concentration of solutes as found in your blood. This means your body does not have to shift fluids in your body letting more electrolytes to be digested more efficiently.
Insulin - Insulin is the hormone responsible for transporting glucose through the bloodstream to the liver and muscles, where it can be stored as glycogen.
Inflammation – Increased blood flow to an area that the body is attempting to repair. This leads to soreness.
Mechanical Muscle Stress - The accumulation of microscopic tears to muscle fiber membranes and protein filaments that happen as a consequence of repetitive, intense muscle contractions.
Oxidative Stress – The damage caused by freed radicals which results in inflammation and soreness.
Protein – A chain of small chemical compounds called amino acids present in all living matter and an essential food form.
4:1 Ratio - 4 grams of carbohydrates to every 1 gram of protein; believed by many researchers to be the most effective post-exercise formula to kick-start glycogen replenishment.